Expanded clay for gardening and building: here is what you need to know

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Expanded clay for gardening and building: here is what you need to know

A versatile material with numerous fields of application, the expanded clay is very useful for garden and garden care.

Expanded clay is a material used in various sectors. The most useful and widespread ones are construction and gardening. In the context of the cultivation of do-it-yourself plants and flowers it is possible to evaluate the optimal use of this material for various purposes, including the decorative one.

One of its main applications is drainage inside vases and planters.

Definition expanded clay

A clay package of this type consists of porous and light balls. This aggregate material is usually used in insulating materials. It appears as very light and porous, but at the same time resistant.

Expanded clay chemical composition

Usually it comes in the form of balls produced through the firing of various types of clays at high temperatures. The latter are then ground and reduced to spherical grainy material.

Each ball inside contains a porous core that ensures the lightness of the material. More externally, however, a hard layer makes mechanical resistance possible.

Expanded clay what it is used for

It is used for garden and garden care by exploiting its drainage capacity. Among its applications there is also that in the field of construction, where it is used above all for its insulating capacity and capable of retaining liquids.

The expanded clay helps to avoid excessive water stagnation, a phenomenon that helps to make the plant roots rot.

Expanded clay where it is put

It is usually used inside planters, vases or in urban gardens and can be applied to any type of soil. Depending on the needs of the plant, it can be placed more or less in depth. For small plants it is usually distributed inside the pots.

It is particularly useful for avoiding the risks due to excessive water stagnation, often at the origin of root rot.

The use of this material may also be indicated to ensure the well-being of indoor plants. In this case it may also be indicated for ornamental purposes only.

In ideal conditions it would be necessary to add this material to another type of natural, such as sand, peat or gravel.

Expanded clay absorbs water

One of the noteworthy properties of this clay is the draining one, that is the ability to absorb and retain excess water.

It is therefore used in gardening precisely because of its ability to maintain the moisture of plants and flowers. This avoids the dangerous proliferation of fungi harmful to the various botanical species cultivated.

Expanded clay in gardening

For the care of the garden or of the plants in pots and planters, the presence of these clay spheres covers both specific practical functions and decorative purposes. In addition to having a draining and protective effect against the weather, the clay in question is a solution that can also be used for decorative purposes only.

Expanded mulch clay

One of the possible uses of this material is also for mulching operations. In this case the clay protects the plants from atmospheric agents typical of the winter period, such as cold, frost and ice.

For this purpose it is placed at the base of the plant. Moreover, the presence of these waterproof balls favors plant protection even in the event of temperature changes due to excessive heat.

In addition to the draining properties, in fact, this material is renowned for its insulating effectiveness. Thus it maintains an ideal microclimate for the healthy growth of botanical species.

Expanded clay in agriculture

Even in the agricultural field small urban gardens can foresee the presence of this useful material.

Organic expanded clay

Being a 100% natural material, its use is also allowed in the field of organic farming.

Alternative expanded clay

A curious alternative to the use of this material can be represented by creative solutions such as the use of baby diapers. Arranged on the pot with a preliminary thin layer of soil, they are able to maintain a constant moisture content for plants and flowers.

Expanded clay where you buy

It can be purchased at stores that specialize in DIY and construction or gardening. Alternatively, it can also be found through online purchase.

In any case, it is important to have in mind the intended use as the clay spheres for construction purposes


Raising pigs as a small entrepreneurial agricultural activity

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Raising pigs as a small entrepreneurial agricultural activity

This is an article dedicated to small Italian agricultural entrepreneurs who intend to start a small semi-wild pig farm that can guarantee quality products and respect for animal welfare.

Among the many Italian peasant traditions, probably that of pig breeding is one of the most important and characteristic.

The breeding of the pig, its killing, the processing of meat, everything was done with extreme care and respect for the animal that represented one of the fundamental food sources for the peasant economy of the time.

Since ancient times the relationship between man and pig has been very close, the domestication of the domestic pig has in fact occurred millennia ago and has continued uninterruptedly up to the present day.

Unfortunately, however, this link has now broken due to globalization and the mass economy that has commoditized animal life, disintegrated traditions and turned everything into mere profit, which in pig breeding resulted in absolutely non-respectful conditions. animal welfare.

Images coming from intensive farms need no comment, they are immoral, unjust, wrong, absolutely useless and to be condemned without ifs and buts.

But what to do then?

Many people have decided to say goodbye to meat consumption, many others are not interested in it completely, while others still seek a compromise between these two different and opposite opinions.

Aware that meat consumption will continue anyway, I decided to make my contribution in the third way, the one I think represents the balance between the desires of human society and animal welfare.

To do this, I write this and other articles to encourage small-scale agricultural production that can intercept the needs of all the actors involved.

In fact, society needs to overcome the model offered by mass production and rediscover the ancient rural world made up of traditions, sustainability and respect.

Here then is the resurgence of a myriad of small farms that respect theenvironment and the right of animals to a dignified life.

It is up to us consumers to support these new rural realities always and in any case because at stake there are many values ​​to defend.

The domestic pig: general outline

The domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) is a mammal belonging to the Suidae family, a group that contains as many as 16 species still alive, including the wild boar and the warthog.

They are rather robust animals, with thick skin and few hairs, small head if related to the massive body and short legs.

The pigs are descendants of the wild boar ( Sus Scrofa ) who underwent the process of domestication by man many years ago.

Pig breeding is in fact a very ancient practice, even depictions of graffiti in the Altamira cave  dated around 40,000 BC have been discovered .

From 5000 BC onwards, the period under which the domestication of pigs, the domestic pig has become one of the most important animals for human consumption.

Its biological characteristics make it a very resistant animal that can live in different environments, from cold to warmer climates, the pig adapts easily to the environment.

However, the process that led the wild boar to become a domestic animal is incomplete, if the pigs are released into the environment they have the capacity to become wild.

The domestic pig is a very prolific animal; in fact, up to 12 babies can be born in each litter, and all of them are suckled by their mother, who has a very developed breast system. His diet is very varied, similar to the human one, another characteristic that has favored the development of the breeding of the species.

Why raise pigs

I clarified at the beginning of the article why it is important to raise pigs in Italy.

The reason in fact is not only economic for the agricultural entrepreneur, but above all for the nature of the animal that unfortunately is bred in shameful conditions by the industrial apparatus.

The demand for pork will not cease soon, but what we have to do is remove important slices of the market from the industrial pig and encourage artisanal production in the wild and semi-wild state where the animal’s minimum rights are respected.

In addition to the ethical aspect, pig breeding is an excellent investment for the agricultural entrepreneur because he can exploit land that would not be usable by other crops.

Ideally, in fact, the pig can occupy mountainous areas covered by woods or pastures, areas that can also be planted with orchards so as to differentiate the pig’s diet and reduce production costs.

How much does it cost to raise a pig

Let’s clarify some concepts immediately, you probably don’t become rich by raising pigs, now in Italy between taxes, bureaucracy and food scams the life of the agricultural entrepreneur is not easy, however with the right precautions it is still possible to work as breeders.

The advice remains the same, to earn in agriculture you have to focus on quality, product traceability and care of the corporate image.

Many agricultural producers completely ignore the importance of storytelling, corporate communication, branding strategy and other important concepts for the development of a strong and recognizable brand.

That is why if you want to start a farm I suggest you read my ebook Azienda Agricola 2.0 where you find vital information to be successful in business.

Determining the cost for pig breeding is a very difficult, if not impossible, task, because it will depend on many factors that cannot be valid for all situations.

The first point to consider is the breed bred , in fact each animal has its specific index of food conversion that relates the food ingested with the increase in mass.

Some selected breeds grow much faster than the rustic breeds, however the latter are much more resistant than those to the others. Rustic breeds are also much more resistant, adaptable to the surrounding environment and more requested by the local market, making them actually more convenient.

Another aspect to consider to analyze the costs is the number of pigs bred : the larger the breeding, the less the cost of food that can be purchased in large lots will affect per unit cost.

Also important is the type of farming associated with the size and quality of the land.

High extensions of land cultivated with fruit, cereals and vegetables will reduce the cost of maintenance per unit as food production will be internal to the company with the achievement of cost reductions.

In addition to food, health costs such as visits by the veterinarian and any treatment and vaccines to which animals are subjected must be considered.

Here then is the concept of rusticity, low-growth autochthonous breeds are the same that will need less care because they are healthier than others.

It is also very important to consider the type of breeding to be started.

When we talk about pig farming, there are in fact two types of category, that of light pork and heavy pork.

The light pig is that animal which at the height of about 120 kilos will be destined to be eaten fresh, while the heavy one is bred up to a high weight of over 160 kg and slaughtered not before having reached 9 months of age (3 months more than the community pig).

Obviously the transformation into cured meats increases the costs, but also the profits being sold at a higher price compared to fresh meat.

An estimate prepared by the CRPA has calculated a cost per kilo of approximately 2.50 euros in intensive conditions, this number tends to decrease for extensive plants where the need for food drops due to the presence of the same in the environment (acorns, etc.).

How to start a pig farm in the wild

The first tip for the aspiring breeder is to start his own business in an amateur way and then specialize and increase production if necessary.

The reasons are not only practical and economic, but also moral.

Managing live animals for work involves a whole series of beautiful sacrifices on paper, but potentially difficult in reality.

The breeder does not know Sunday, August and Christmas, I hope you know this. Animals must be kept and checked 365 days a year.

A good choice could be to start the business in company with a friend or colleague to dampen the personal and financial commitment in the company and manage the work.

In addition to personal reasons, it is important to start small because during the first cycles we learn those fundamental notions for production.

There is no book or course that can in fact replace direct experience.

Having said that, we will move on to the practical part that will start from the choice of the suitable terrain.

If possible, an oak wood is the best choice for the presence of acorns, the favorite food par excellence.

The acorn is the main food for pigs , not by chance that in Spain the most sought-after breeds are fed exclusively on acorns making the hams reach impressive costs.

The oak forest can be associated with pastures and orchards where the pig is free to roam and search for food.

An exemplary case is the semi-wild breeding of the Porc farm at the time which with the direct testimony of the founders shows us that all these notions are applicable to reality.

In planning, pay attention to the structures and related costs. Every animal needs minimal surface and shelter for the night, moreover the ground will have to be fenced to avoid robbery and attacks by predators like wolves.

Bureaucracy for pig farms

In Italy, domestic pig breeding is subjected to a strict series of rules, many of which are created at European level, which have the duty to guarantee the traceability, healthiness, safety and hygiene of production, as well as the welfare of the animals raised. , both during actual breeding and during transport and slaughter.

This is a rather remarkable regulatory apparatus where the penalties are high and the controls are strict and repeated over time to guarantee the consumer.

Unfortunately this does not always happen, the scandalous cases happen, but we must take note of the rules and implement them.

If you want to start in an amateur way (as recommended by me and many others), you need to know that you don’t need particular permits, you will only have to report to the authorities the beginning of the family activity.

Those who intend to raise pigs on their own land must register with the Animal Service of the competent local ASL within 20 days of the arrival of the animals, which must not be more than 4 pigs per year.

Always from the competent ASL you will receive the list of obligations to perform and health checks before slaughter that can take place both at home and in specialized structures.

Breeding pigs: final considerations

In this short article I hope I have put you on the right path to your dream.

Like all life projects, nothing is easy, but neither is it impossible.

In your path you will always find people who will tell you to give up, to let go, but in reality they are not talking to you, but to themselves because they have not had the courage to pursue their dreams.

Fighting for one’s dreams is difficult, one risks failing, and the human mind is afraid of failure. Leaving your comfort zone and abandoning all certainties is a process that only a few have the courage to go through.

It’s up to you to decide which side to take.

I want to greet you with this video which I hope you enjoy.


Profitable crops, how and what to invest in agriculture

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Profitable crops, how and what to invest in agriculture

Many farmers and aspiring entrepreneurs are asking themselves which are the profitable crops in Italy and abroad.

In general, a crop is profitable when the difference between production costs and sales price is large.

And as it is easy to understand, this is a datum that is difficult to quantify in an unequivocal manner as each situation is unique and not repeatable.

On the one hand, production costs are closely linked to the type of farm in question, on the other hand the sales price linked to the presence of the company on the market and sales channels.

Cultivation will therefore be profitable only in some cases , while in others not due to production methods and market accessibility.

However, despite the differences between the various individual cases, it is possible to determine the profitability of a specific crop keeping in mind some general parameters.

A cultivation is profitable if:

  • it is possible to automate the production;
  • it is possible to sell it to the end customer;
  • satisfies a need in the local community;
  • we focus on quality and not quantity.

It is clear that not all the cultivations carried out in Italy today can be considered profitable, but rather a narrow minority are so because it is difficult to respect these basic parameters.

Take the example of wheat, it is an easily automatable crop, but the recipients will be the large retailers who, as we know, use their commercial strength to tear prices down to the limit of survival for the farmer.

The same goes for example for tomatoes, oranges and fruits.

On the other hand we find, for example, the cultivation of saffron, a potentially profitable cultivation , but unfortunately in some phases of the processing nothing can be automated without the delicacy of the flower.

Finding the right balance between production costs and direct sales is precisely the topic of this article.

The Open Company blog is full of ideas to apply to agriculture , in recent times a deep interest has been born around environmental issues and more and more people are approaching small local realities and actively participating in change.

Wherever possible, I always advise consumers to prefer organic and local food not only for obvious health reasons, but also and above all to actively support small Italian agricultural entrepreneurship.

It is useless to complain without acting, we are change, we decide which activities to reward or not, we choose local products, we will gain all our territory.


Among the various potentially profitable agricultural activities, I like to mention heliciculture, earthworm cultivation, beekeeping, cultivation of wild berries, saffron, cultivation of medicinal herbs, fungiculture, truffle farming, sativa hemp, giant bamboo , the production of precious woods, breeding of poultry, breeding goats, raising of laying hens, cultivation of legumes and ancient grains.

As you can see, there are many potentially profitable activities , but be careful, as stated in the introduction it is not always possible to extend the profitability to all the cases analyzed.

There will be the small farmer with a good sales network, but he will never be able to climb the market due to the lack of efficiency in production, as there will be the big farm that will have to work hard to establish itself as a company with high quality products.

I have written numerous and detailed articles for each of the crops mentioned above, it would be a pleasure for me if you wanted to spend part of your time reading those you are interested in starting from the list below:

  • start a snail farm ;
  • breed earthworms ;
  • become a beekeeper ;
  • cultivation of wild berries ;
  • start a saffron ;
  • the cultivation of medicinal herbs ;
  • the funghicoltura ;
  • create a truffle farming ;
  • cultivating sativa hemp ;
  • start a giant bamboo cultivation ;
  • breeding of farm animals ;
  • raising goats ;
  • design a laying hen farm ;
  • breed ladybirds;

The secret to establishing itself on the market is to specialize in a particular unique and unrepeatable market niche. Consider that the Italian territory is unique in its kind and a world-wide ambit.

The made in Italy brand is among the first in the world, if the farm manages to communicate this message, the reference market is the whole world.


We have seen that one of the important parameters for gaining in agriculture is to keep production costs as low as possible.

A starting point to reduce costs is to calculate the total costs for each crop through the calculation of working hours, the means used, raw materials and so on.

In agriculture, one of the main sources of costs is labor.

Some agricultural activities require only a few hours of work, but on the other hand they require the use of expensive machinery that the small producer can often only rent for very short periods.

After the cost analysis phase, list those activities that can be eliminated or modified.

The cultivation techniques can in fact be modified to reduce the use of labor.

Another strategy is to employ volunteers who, in exchange for their work, ask for practical lessons in agricultural activities.

In the 2.0 farm manual, I also explain a revolutionary approach to devising a profitable agricultural business.


For a small company it is possible to keep costs down, but the real challenge is that of direct access to the market.

The figure of the agricultural entrepreneur in recent years has evolved from the classic farmer to the young connected with social media and the internet and who shares the fruits of his work and earns by selling directly to the end customer.


We have seen that one of the important parameters for gaining in agriculture is to keep production costs as low as possible.

A starting point to reduce costs is to calculate the total costs for each crop through the calculation of working hours, the means used, raw materials and so on.

In agriculture, one of the main sources of costs is labor.

Some agricultural activities require only a few hours of work, but on the other hand they require the use of expensive machinery that the small producer can often only rent for very short periods.

After the cost analysis phase, list those activities that can be eliminated or modified.

The cultivation techniques can in fact be modified to reduce the use of labor.

Another strategy is to employ volunteers who, in exchange for their work, ask for practical lessons in agricultural activities.


At the opening we saw some potentially profitable ideas that were born thanks to the entrepreneur’s creativity.

Current trends are those that help the environment to regenerate and all those substances that are important for human health.

The next foreseeable agricultural boom in Italy will certainly be that of hemp which has recently been regulated to finally help the development of this important source of income.

Other growing trends will be those that will put environmental sustainability in a central position, an example is the use of bamboo as a building material.

Also worth mentioning are all the agricultural activities such as educational farms and agritourism aimed at customers who are particularly attentive to the rural and agricultural world of Italy.


 hope that this short article on profitable crops has encouraged you to study and train yourself, above all, on the commercial and marketing side of the company.

The time of the good farmer is enough, alas, they are finished, today the figure of the agricultural entrepreneur has evolved into a concentration of multidisciplinary skills that together work on the final project.

Knowing how to cultivate is not enough, now you have to be an all-round entrepreneur who is not afraid of new technologies, one who knows how to wander between planting and sharing on social media, from a good harvest to sending a newsletter informing you of the next event.

Are you ready for the challenge?

In an evolving world, those who don’t do it sink.


Grow a plant from food waste: 11 plants that are reborn

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Grow a plant from food waste: 11 plants that are reborn

In the theme of recycling in the kitchen, even the most careful and virtuous of you may have underestimated the infinite possibilities that are hidden behind a simple root or a remnant of the vegetable, which only apparently seems to be destined for the dustbin. We Tuttogreen we want to explain how to grow a plant from a scrap of food, a thing that gives a satisfaction all of its own.

There are a variety of vegetables, in fact, that can regrow easily, giving life to a new plant, becoming a new source of food.

All we have to do is to know the varieties that are best suited to be ricoltivate directly into the house and follow some simple but essential tip to give a new life to our ‘leftovers’.

We assume that the plant varieties are more prone to a spontaneous regrowth of hair is rapid and long-lasting are at least a dozen. All are common and very used in the kitchen. And the methods to grow a new plant from a gap, are of very easy application.

It is obviously very important that the ‘quality’ of the scrap used is of a high standard and, better still, that it is of biological origin to ensure a good regrowth of fresh vegetables and genuine.

With a little patience and some tricks, your garden organic is obtained from the food scraps will give you great satisfaction.

Let’s see how to do this, by grouping the plants according to the technique to use:

Fennel, shallots, chives and leeks

Can regrow easily by using the white root of the plant. Put the end in a glass jar and place it in a place well exposed to the sun (for example on the window sill of the kitchen) with a little water.

In a matter of a few days we will see that the green part of the plant will begin to sprout. We just cut the right amount to reuse in the kitchen.

The root must always remain wet, and the water must be changed once a week.

A bit like leeks, these vegetables can be ricoltivati from their white root.

Once cut the stems just like normal to use the edible part of the plant, it is sufficient to place the base of the root in a shallow bowl with water in an amount sufficient to comprimerne the white part but not the top end.

By placing the bowl in a sunny place and keeping well-the root moist with a vaporizer, in a couple of days were to sprout new leaves from the roots.

After a week, the new plan will be ready to be moved into the soil where it will sprout lush.

Garlic, onions and ginger

Are among the vegetables most easy-to-ricoltivare starting from their own waste. To get a new garlic, for example, simply plant a clove with the root down and place the container in a very warm and well lit by the direct light of the sun.

The same is true for the ginger (which, however, does not like direct light), that root them quickly producing new shoots. After a few days, it will be enough to insert the plant and cut the buds to allow the plant to produce new bulbs.

How many times have we thrown in the garbage an old potato shriveled thinking not to be able to use? The old potatoes are perfect to be re-cultivated, even more if their skin are already clipped some buds. Cut into pieces (about 2 cm), the potato being careful that the sprouts remain intact and let it rest for a couple of days at room temperature.

At this point, buried at 8 cm of depth, the pieces of potato with the sprout facing upwards and make sure that the potato has all the necessary nutrients to continue to grow. In particular, you will need to use the compost.

As the plant grows, add more soil until you get a vigorous growth, and healthy that will ensure a new crop in the next few weeks.

As I said in the beginning, grow a plant from a waste of food it is possible, indeed easy for someone who has a minimum of passion!


How to Open a Farm – How Much Does It Cost, What It Needs and Requirements

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
How to Open a Farm – How Much Does It Cost, What It Needs and Requirements

In this we provide some useful tips on how to open a farm, explaining how much it costs, what is needed and what are the requirements.

Agriculture is a sector in continuous evolution and development, which can constitute an excellent business, besides offering the possibility of working in a natural environment, far from the confusion of an urban context. This is an activity that requires technical skills combined with a great passion, and that can be a source of great satisfaction and excellent economic response.

For a young person who has a good preparation and who appreciates outdoor work, agriculture is certainly an opportunity to be taken into consideration, but it is necessary to have a precise knowledge about the laws, the necessary requirements, the equipment of basis and related costs.

It is also very important to assess the needs of the local market, given that currently the greatest demand is for Km 0 products, organic farming and niche products, as well as spices, which can represent a real investment.

What it takes to open a farm

The fundamental element for a farm is the land, which must be suitable for cultivation and, if it is planned to dedicate space to farming, to grazing, with the presence of a stable for the coldest period and a sufficiently stocked ample both for storing the products obtained with the cultivation and for storing the equipment, the machines, the seeds, the animal feed and other commonly used products.

A part of the land should be reserved for fruit plants, moreover if the cultivation includes winter vegetables or plants that need a controlled temperature, it is necessary to install a greenhouse. It is necessary to have at first a tractor and a thresher, in addition to the manual equipment for the cultivation of the vegetable garden, the orchard and the various plantations that you want to carry out and provide yourself with a good supply of fertilizers, pesticides, feed, seeds , bulbs and plants to be planted.

If the intent is to cultivate with the organic farming method, it is advisable to avoid any chemical product, equip yourself for the production of natural compost and get accurate information on the climate, the characteristics of the soil and the type of pests to which each chosen plant is subject. This is because organic farming does not make use of pre-packaged insecticides or fertilizers, but exploits the cycle of nature and the seasons.

At this point it is necessary to specify that the equipment can vary considerably depending on the type of cultivation to be carried out. If the intention, for example, is to dedicate oneself only to the typical products of the area, or to the cultivation of fruit or vegetables, to a particularly precious spice, to viticulture or to the sowing of wheat and cereals, the necessary tools will be different , and consequently the costs.

Agriculture, even if it does not seem, often follows the trends of the moment, and to be successful it is necessary to keep up with the times, it is useless to propose a product whose market is already saturated, or reserved for a too narrow target limited. Currently, the most effective trends concern the well-being, health and biodiversity of the territory. The most promising sectors are consequently the cultivation of aromatic herbs and medicinal plants, the organic vegetable garden, the cultivation of rare mushrooms and truffles, the production of typical products at Km 0 with attached farm house and educational farm, the cultivation of saffron, malt and hops, viticulture and the production of fine local wines. If the available land is sufficiently large,

Not all land is suitable for cultivation, or is more suitable for special productions. Even the funding offered by the regions sometimes relates to the specificity of the territory, and to the possibility of cultivating particularly valuable typical products, before deciding on a transfer, it is good to carefully evaluate the proposals of the regional bodies, and find out about the most suitable crops in their area of ​​residence.

Requirements for opening a farm

Anyone wishing to start an independent activity as a farmer must necessarily possess significant experience in the sector, consisting of a period of at least three years of work as an employee and a degree in agricultural techniques. However, the basic requirements may differ between one region and another, so it is necessary to inform yourself in advance.

The bureaucratic procedure for opening a farm coincides with the path to follow to start any independent activity, opening the VAT position, registering with the Chamber of Commerce, opening the INPS position, authorization from the local ASL and the brigade command of fire.

Furthermore, if the intention is to combine agricultural production with retail sales, processing and packaging of food products or restaurants and farm holidays, it becomes necessary to obtain the qualification through the attendance of a Haccp course on l food hygiene, food treatment and preservation, with relative examination and certification.

Like any other activity, it is necessary to keep the accounting books, relying preferably on an accountant, in addition to noting down the techniques, the cultivation treatments and the traceability of the different products on the appropriate Country Book, the register where all the information is kept concerns cultivation, from sowing to harvest.

If the intention is to operate as a company or as a cooperative, it will also be necessary to bear the cost to formally establish it, in a notary’s office, with related stamp duties, licenses and permits.

As far as organic farming is concerned, it is necessary to obtain specific certifications, and to subject the company to an annual inspection by the bodies that verify and prove the total absence of chemicals and the use of exclusively natural methods .

Costs for opening a farm

The cost of opening and managing a farm is rather difficult to determine, as there are many variables that affect the result, from the vastness of the land to the cultivation techniques. Since it is a very complex activity, it is very important to draw up a precise business plan, taking into account each different element, also because sometimes it is possible to make use of important tax breaks that require a detailed cost calculation. If the activity partly concerns also the breeding, it will be necessary to take into account the expenses for the purchase of the animals, for specific food products and for veterinary assistance.

An alternative could be to take over an activity that has already been set up and started up, obviously making sure that it is a modern company, updated and equipped with everything necessary. Otherwise, the purchase of all the material necessary for the performance of the activity according to the established must be calculated, with the addition of the costs of purchasing or renting the land and buildings and, if necessary, the construction of a laboratory for the food packaging, a room for direct sales and the purchase not only of agricultural vehicles but also of a van or another type of suitable means of transport.

In the event that you decide to open a farm activity, the star up phase becomes more complex, as it is necessary to equip the structure in such a way that it is suitable for the reception of guests, both as regards hygiene and the comfort level, set up a kitchen and a dining room.

Whatever the nature of the company, farm, production, production and sales, organic farming or other, it is still necessary to open utilities for the supply of water, electricity and gas. Considering that a farm has a sunny plot, it can be interesting to evaluate the installation of a photovoltaic system, which will provide at least in part to supply hot water and electricity.

In addition to the normal management of any company, heating, electricity, water, waste disposal and purchase of raw materials, it is necessary to calculate the costs of ordinary maintenance of buildings and machines, fuel, veterinary advice, accountant and salaries of employees. It is also important to put in a figure to carry out a marketing and advertising promotion campaign for the activity, especially if retail, catering or agritourism services are included.

A useful suggestion can be to start from a small activity, to then expand it once started, considering the results and the progress of the work. With land that is not too large, used agricultural machinery and few products, it is possible to maintain costs and then proceed to expand the volume of business.

The Regions and the European Union offer subsidized loans and non-repayable loans for agriculture start-ups, for young agricultural entrepreneurs and for projects that support biodiversity and local products. For detailed information, you can contact Coldiretti and other trade associations, evaluate the funding proposed by the banks for this type of activity and check at the headquarters of the Region of reference for the issuing of calls for special loans and incentives. The request for a loan usually requires the preparation of a precise business plan to start the activity and a detailed project for the first three years of work.


Marketing and advertising promotion are very important, especially for trade and tourism activities. An agritourism facility needs a site, with the possibility of booking, and a sufficient entertainment and involvement service for guests: gardening and horticulture courses, bicycle or horse riding excursions, sports and artistic activities for adults and children. In every season, before the opening, it is necessary to analyze the local market, and identify the uncovered points, in order to propose an innovative and original service. For agricultural productivity, it is necessary to carry out a precise survey on the most popular products of the moment and on food trends, especially in the vegetarian sphere.


How to grow an avocado tree from the core

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
How to grow an avocado tree from the core

One of the easiest plants to grow from a seed is the avocado. It may seem strange but alone or with children, in just over 2 months you will have a good experience of how life blossoms from a simple large kernel.

How to grow an avocado tree from the core
And without making too much effort or having a green thumb… Here is a short guide consisting of a few simple steps, to grow a tree of avocado from its seed.

  1. Gently remove and clean the seed. Make sure you don’t wash away the thin brown film that wraps around it, but only the flesh residue.
  2. It is important to pay attention to the sharpest part of the seed, because it will be the part from which the roots will grow.
  3. Place 3 toothpicks, at a slight angle of 45 degrees, around the entire circumference of the seed. The toothpicks act as a support, they will help you to keep the seed afloat on the edge of a glass while the flat part of the seed will remain immersed in water.
  4. Place the glass in a sunny sill and remember to change the water at least once a week, to avoid the proliferation of fungi and bacteria. Choose a transparent glass so you can see the roots of your avocado grow!
  5. When cracks start to form inside the seed and the brown skin starts to fall, the first roots will appear at the bottom. Make sure they never stay dry: avocado is a delicate plant, it would die in a very short time. Be patient, it will take about 8 weeks!
  6. When your seedling has reached approximately 15-20 centimetres, tick it (7 centimetres will be enough) to encourage further growth. When you reach 15-20 centimetres again, plant it in a 20-25 centimetre pot in a humus-rich soil. Make sure that the upper part of the seed remains exposed to the air, then place the pot in the part of the house most exposed to the sun. It is a tropical plant, so the more sun it receives, the better.
  7. Always keep your plant’s soil well moistened.
  8. Once you reach about 30 cm, your plant is ready to be pruned. Cut off the first leaves at the top so that they become thicker, and do it again as soon as it grows a further 15 cm.

If the plant is subject to aphids, don’t worry: get rid of the insects by gently rinsing the leaves under running water, then spray the plant with a mixture of water, a tip of dish detergent and a teaspoon of Neem oil, an evergreen typical of India.

Perfectly off your balcony in summer, the avocado plant needs a warmer autumn-winter environment before temperatures start to drop below 7 degrees.

So it’s easy to have a green thumb! Here are also some great and easy recipes with avocado to prepare with the fruits of your plant.


Sustainable agriculture means less waste of land and water. And more healthy food for 10 billion people, how many will we be in 2050?

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Sustainable agriculture means less waste of land and water. And more healthy food for 10 billion people, how many will we be in 2050?

Sustainability in agriculture is primarily concerned with producers, men and women who cannot be strangled by the strong hand of buyers. The SAI platform and the Findus case to promote respect for the land.


We always talk, in economics, about the technological industry, services, manufacturing, and we often forget that over 60 percent of the world population still depends on agriculture. Not only. By 2050, so in a few years time, the planet’s population will reach 10 billion people, and the demand for agricultural products will grow by at least 50 percent.

Who will be able to respond to this huge demand for food? And with which techniques and production methods that do not become yet another opportunity to waste one of the most important resources for man, precisely the earth, and therefore nature? Around these questions, we play the game of sustainable agriculture, at the top of the goals of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development, the editorial compass of this site.


When we talk about sustainable agriculture, we mean first of all three fundamental things. First of all work so that in the cultivation there is more efficiency in the use of productive factors such as fertilizers, energy and water. A way to get more efficiency, less waste and less pollution. As for water, waste and consumption can be cut, for example, thanks to the introduction of efficient, efficient irrigation systems that can supply small volumes of water by calculating and administering the real water needs of the plants. The second pivot of sustainable agriculture is another equation: more fertile soil with less fertilizer. A goal to be achieved, for example by using the right crop rotations. In this case, for example, a cultivation can return to the same field not before a certain suitable period. Thirdly, agriculture is truly sustainable when, even before the land, it respects people, communities that work in the agricultural sector, the territory where it is produced, with its identity and its specificities. And in the respect of the people in the first place it falls the fact that the farmers, cannot be forced, from the strong hand of the buyer, not to have clarity and balance in the definition of the prices, the quantities and the quality of each product.  


These principles in recent years have been adopted by companies active in the sector that are increasingly investing in sustainable agriculture. One of these is Findus, one of the leaders in the frozen food market, which has joined the SAI Platform, the main international initiative on sustainability in agriculture. This membership involves the verification of the Findus plant production, through an in-depth analysis that covers all aspects of sustainability.

To apply these principles, and in keeping with a path taken years ago, Findus has begun to promote agriculture that guarantees respect for the land and protects farmers and their crops. In sustainability that is not only environmental, but also social and economic.

In order to use less fertilizers than to practice crop rotation, Findus performs soil analysis annually to assess soil fertility so as to be able to define fertilization protocols by accurately calculating the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, in order to intervene in targeted way and thus distribute only the nutrients necessary for the correct growth of plants. Finally, Findus decided to focus a lot on relationships, which is why it supports the 672 Italian farms with which it collaborates on the territory with its own and third-party technicians and agronomists. A commitment that, also through the definition of the price before sowing, aims to promote sustainable agriculture in the territory, of which the community can benefit in social, economic and environmental terms.

In addition to the commitment ‘on the field’, Findus is also dedicated to telling its own mission through the Findus Green Camp , a real journey towards sustainability in the company of Fabrizio, the agronomist Findus, and 4 young explorers who have the task of explaining the techniques, the curiosities and the principles of sustainable agriculture for the cultivation of vegetables of the Minestrone Tradizione Findus .


Thanks to the efforts made, Findus aims to produce 90% of the total plant volumes according to the FSA sustainability standard (Farm Sustainability Assessment) by 2019, the verification scheme developed by SAI that allows to analyze its own agricultural practices in depth and covering all aspects of sustainable agriculture. The techniques used will weave products such as Minestrone Tradizione, Piselli and Spinaci, and will be verified by an audit by a third party.


Working with animals: the professions in contact with animals

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Working with animals: the professions in contact with animals

How many of us would like to escape from the sad walls of our office and work with animals ?

Even if at first glance it would seem difficult to transform our passion into a real job, with the hard and constant commitment, an adequate preparation, strong passion and a bit of luck it is possible to work with animals.

Tenacity is the decisive factor in my opinion for success or failure in any field.

The type of work is more coveted, the more difficult it is to get it and if on the one hand it is a source of stress on the other it is an incentive to do it all.

Final satisfaction will be greater. Those who want to work with animals have various possibilities before them.

The professions are different, some require an appropriate schooling and others do not.

Some professions are well known and of long tradition while others are new of the last generation.

Before bringing you the different professions related to the world of animals, I want to recommend the book The Animal Encyclopedia, a complete work for those who love animals full of great photos and detailed descriptions. Rated 10/10.

work with animals1.Veterinario;

For those who want to work with animals , that of the vet is the profession par excellence. Becoming a veterinarian deserves an article if for the vastness of the subject.

To become a veterinarian, a 5-year university study path plus the state qualifying examination is required.

After completing the qualification, you must pass a further admission test to the graduate school for three years.

As you can see, the path is not short-lived. However, if you start as a young man, guided by a strong passion and are flexible to travel, there are many career opportunities. The veterinarian in fact does not only deal with domestic animals but also and above all with farmed animals.

Dog sitting;

An innovative professional figure, the dog sitter is the one who takes care of the dogs of others. No specific degrees are required to carry out this profession but it is a good idea to possess a canine driver license.

Dog sitter is an innovative profession that is increasingly expanding both in Italy and abroad.

Wellness clinics;

Yes, not only men and women love to be treated. Animal welfare clinics include a wide range of professional figures who take care of the psychophysical wellbeing of animals.

If you don’t have an animal (like me) maybe you can’t understand how the owners love their animals and they would do everything for their well-being. For this reason there are wellness clinics.

Educational farms;

This is my dream, so don’t try to compete with me. Joking aside, an educational farm is just a farm where children can interact with the animal world, learning to be in contact with nature.

In an increasingly alienating world, a return to the origins and traditions through the education of children is not only useful but necessary.

These farms can work closely with schools and parents, organizing outdoor activities and outings.

Is not it fantastic?


Even if those who want to work with animals normally love animals and don’t want to kill them, being a breeder can still be a major challenge.

Without getting caught up in useless hypocrisy, most of us are omnivorous.

I personally am, however, one thing that I do not tolerate is the torture that animals suffer while they are alive. Repulsive images of intensive farming are leading me to become aware of the type of product I consume.

I have significantly reduced my consumption of meat and only eat the one coming from certified farms when possible. The animal even if destined for human consumption has a dignity and as such must be respected.

This is why those who truly love animals can decide to become a responsible breeder and aware of the rights that animals have.

In addition to this you can become a breeder of animals with different purpose as a breeder of dogs, horses and fish for aquariums. As you can see, there are many possibilities.

Work at the Zoo;

I personally hate zoos. Wild animals should live freely in their natural environment. However, if the Zoo is intended as a safeguard and education structure then it is welcome.

The professional figures are varied, from maintenance to dissemination with visitors. Some of them need specific preparation, while others do not.

Marine Biologist;

As a Marine Biologist, you can work with animals in different areas. For example, you can drive sea excursions for tourists, or work in a water park or aquarium.

Unfortunately in Italy the job opportunities are quite limited but it is not said that in the future it cannot change.


Many environmental associations work trying to defend the environment and this inevitably leads to contact with animals.

Guard park;

Whether it is marine or terrestrial parks, the figure of the park guard is a much sought after location. In Italy, it is possible to work for the Forest Guard after winning a public competition.


The zoologist is the scholar who studies animals. Within this branch of Biology, Zoology is divided into various categories. For example, one of the best known is the branch of Ornithology, that is the study of birds.

To become a zoologist it is necessary to obtain a five-year degree.

As you can see, the possibilities for working with animals are different.

The most important thing is to be driven by a strong passion due to the strong competition in this field. A job in contact with nature is a popular destination for many so the only passion is not enough if it is not accompanied by adequate preparation.

The important thing to be able to work with animals is to persevere and not give up at the first adversity. If you liked the article working with animals and want to keep in touch with my Blog Open Company, you can add yourself to the Facebook page.


Vineyard fertilization: which product to choose for foliar fertilization

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Vineyard fertilization: which product to choose for foliar fertilization

The fertilization of the vineyard is a fundamental practice to obtain an optimal yield from its cultivation.

The fertilization of the vine, because of its importance, it is a complex matter that, in addition to a good knowledge of the plant (of which you must constantly monitor any deficiencies or excesses of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, iron and the like) provides a careful study of the composition of the soil and subsoil , which hosts the production.

It is precisely on the basis of these factors, which is made of the plan of manuring, which will determine periods and mode of fertilization, to preserve the health and productivity of the vineyard; according to the different stages of the development of the vineyard itself.

In a historical moment in which the consequences of climate change, now in place for several years, are manifesting in a more and more significant, especially in periods of spring, fertilisation, foliar application can become a valuable ally in the protection of vineyards.

For the Italian agriculture and the Italian (and global) has become practice to deal with cases of “exceptional weather” in the spring: phenomena, out of season, such as hailstorms, floods, snow, frost even in lowland areas, very strong winds and cold, in fact, cause serious damage to all crops and affect the yield both in terms qulalitativi quantitative.

In a delicate sector such as viticulture, and similar events can cause (and have caused) massive damage. It is for this reason that composting has become increasingly important for farmers.

There are many companies that, with their wide range of products and experience in the industry, can help farmers to make a plan of fertilization of the vineyard; among these must certainly be mentioned COMPO EXPERT, an important reference in the field of horticulture, fruit-growing and viticulture, and in the nursery.

A proper planning of fertilizing, in fact, can really make the difference and solve the arise problems such as failure to fruit setting and maturation, resulting in millerandage and non-filling of the bunch.

The plan of fertilizing can make all the difference when it comes to the quality of the grapes.

The different types of fertilizer to the vineyard

The mode of fertilization of the vineyard are four and they differ because each of them has the purpose to accompany the cultivation of specific moments of his life:

  • The fertilizer fund, to be carried out prior to planting of the plant, prepares the soil for the cultivation
  • The fertilization of departure, to be paid for the first 3 years of the life of the plant, helps the growth of the vineyard and the graduation production
  • The fertilizer production, to be carried out each year, provides the proper nutrition while avoiding excesses or deficiencies of nutrients
  • The fertilization foliar, also to be run annually, allows you to make nutrients immediately available to the plant with the aim of preventing and treating deficiencies and abiotic stress

The manuring, the leaf blade and its importance in viticulture

Although all of the fertilizers listed so far are very important in viticulture that the leaf is of particular importance because it allows you to administer macroelements or microelements in the format that is soluble to the plant, and it integrates very well with the classical soil fertilization.

It is precisely at this juncture that the products COMPO EXPERT can make all the difference: the company produces different types of products for foliar application of proven quality and effectiveness, interpreting them according to the most innovative technologies in the industry.

Which products to choose for the manuring, the leaf blade of the screw?

The big advantage of manuring, the leaf blade is to be able to make nutrients immediately available to the plant, with the aim of preventing or curing the temporary nutritional stress and make a real activation of the physiology of the processes of the response of plants to stress.

Especially after serious episodes of bad weather, it is necessary to use products that put in motion the biochemical and physiological processes within the plant tissues of the plant.

The line Basfoliar® COMPO EXPERT is ideal for these applications and is composed of products that are adaptable to each stage of the development of the vineyard as envisaged by the plan of fertilization.

Basfoliar® Kelp for proper root development

Basfoliar® Kelp of COMPO EXPERT

Basfoliar® Kelp is a bio-stimulating, natural, high-quality extract from the seaweed Ecklonia maxima, which is capable of:

  • Strengthen the response of plants to abiotic stress (such as frosts and hailstorms)
  • Improve the development radical, the absorption of nutrients and water, increase plant production and, therefore, the yields in quantity and quality

Products for pre-flowering: Basfoliar® Aktiv and Solubor® DF

Basfoliar® Aktiv of COMPO EXPERT

When applied as by pre-flowering, the bio-stimulating Basfoliar® Aktiv (in addition to acting on the levels of phosphorus and potassium) increases the production of natural defensive substances, such fitoalessine, naturally produced by plants. In addition, its high content of potassium helps to strengthen the plant tissues, and to improve the production and translocation of sugars in the reserve organs, which will improve the quality of the productions.

Basfoliar® Aktiv, enriched with plant hormones of plant origin (Basfoliar® Kelp), helps to:

  • To foster a better resistance to abiotic stresses (such as water and heat)
  • Improve the growth and vegetative-productive and, therefore, the yield in quantity and quality

In addition, to help with the pollination and fruit set, we suggest the application of Solubor® DF, a fertilizer micro-colored with a base of boron, which prevents and cures the deficiencies.

Products for the post-flowering: Basfoliar® CaMag and Agrilon® Microcombi

Basfoliar® CaMag of COMPO EXPERT

In the phase of post-flowering, to substantially reduce the deficiencies of calcium and magnesium, it is recommended the use of Basfoliar® CaMag, which is a liquid product based on boron, calcium and magnesium.

The presence of boron in traces it is essential to get the calcium, element that is not very mobile within the plant tissues.

The calcium and magnesium, working in total synergy, put in motion an action for the strengthening of plant tissues and stimulation of photosynthetic activity.

Its application also helps to prevent the dehydration of the spine.

Another important aid is given by the corrective Agrilon® Microcombi, the action of which prevents and treats the physiological alterations or nutritional imbalances due to lack of availability of microelements.

This product contains magnesium and all major and trace elements in the form chelated, that promote rapid absorption of trace elements, both by leaf and root.


Let’s find out everything about the use of peat and its nutritional properties for plants

Posted by Tonya Harrison on
Let’s find out everything about the use of peat and its nutritional properties for plants

Peat is the first stage of carbon coke formation. It is therefore used as a fuel, but above all as a substrate and mulch for vegetable gardens and gardens. There are many peat-based products on the market, such as whiskey and anti-contracture pillows. Let’s find out a little better.

Peat etymology

The meaning of the word comes from the French tourbe.

Peat meaning

The peat is a deposit of plant remains waterlogged.

Also called the ‘fossil fuel of quaternary age’, consists of 50-60% carbon, 5-7% of hydrogen, 30 to 40% of water and between 1% and 3% of nitrogen.

How do you form the peat

They form in soils full of water in the absence of oxygen and hydrogen (typically, pools of water, wetlands). That’s why, sometimes, between the layers, you can also find insects and the carcasses of other animals.

Because of the acidity of the environment and of the cold, in fact, these deposits do not decompose completely, but are able to emit greenhouse gases. To form 1-1,5 mm it takes 1 year!

Peat coal

Having a low water content, and ash is considered a fossil fuel poor, characterized by a very high percentage of humidity. It’s most used for the production of electricity.

Light, spongy, and can contain up to 90% of water, which is reduced by up to 30% after drying. It is, therefore, a coal age recently, which is used more as concimante and fertilizer.

The peat smoke?

It is useful for heating where there is no wood or fossil fuels. But its calorific value is very low, especially in relation to the amount of smoke generated.

Generates smoke also, of course, during the process of carbonization and fossilization, which transforms into lignite, coal and anthracite. That is, only with the evaporation of moisture from the surrounding.

As the peat used in scotch

But it is also useful to the process of distillation; it is in fact responsible for the taste peaty whisky. More peat burning (from a few hours to a few days), the more the whisky will be smoky.

When you add to scotch

Is merged with the whisky at the time of maltatura.

Through special ovens called a kiln, the grains of barley dry, and the smoke penetrates in the beans still damp, creating a pungent aroma and smoky, typical especially of the scottish whiskies.

Peat potting soil

It is mainly combined with the potting soil vegetable and flower gardens, as being the acidic and fibrous, it makes the soil light and soft: ideal for ornamental plants.

By lowering the pH of the soil helps in the cultivation of acidophilic plants, such as azalea, hydrangea , and heather; and encourages the germination and keeps off the pests.

Sphagnum peat

The sphagnum moss (Sphagnum) is the so-called moss peat. It is an aquatic plant that helps in the formation of bogs, marshes or swamps where the peat.

If air-dried, sphagnum becomes the main ingredient of the potting soil for the cultivation of orchids, tropical plants, and carnivorous, and is useful in the rooting of cuttings. When it is green, is from the substrate and the gasket for plants with aerial roots.

Peat acid

Is another way to define the sphagnum peat. Can be milled, in clods, or frozen.

How do I collect the peat

  • Peat, milled, collection from April to September, from the surface layer of a peat bog (approximately 1-2 cm from the surface). Before harvesting, a layer 2 cm thick is turned over several times, and dried in the air and in the sun and then poured into piles.
  • Peat sods, obtained through the extraction in rectangular pieces from bogs. These tiles are arranged on the surface to be so dried and dried. It is the most easy to preserve.
  • Peat frozen extracted to a depth of 40 cm. In the winter, the sod is turned over several times to be well-exposed to the cold. Until the next year, when it is harvested (always between April and September). It is the most permeable.

What is the peat

But the peat acid is also distinguished by the degree of grinding:

  • Fine fractions: finely ground is useful to the cultivation of vegetables and for the seed, but it is used often in parks, on golf courses and in public areas
  • Mean fraction: is the one present in the potting soil universal. Useful to improve the conditions of the terrain, it can also be used for the cultivation of plants and flowers in pots and greenhouses
  • Coarse fraction: it is the most permeable. Is used therefore as a substrate, and is ideal for the garage home in great vasiere, for the growth of conifers, plants, berries, ornamental plants, and as a mulch for the roses.

Peat acidic sphagnum

The acid of pure sphagnum moss comes from the surface layers of the peat bogs of central and northern Europe, Canada, Australia, the Amazon, Russia and South-east asia. There are various types: blonde, dark, and black, depending on the color.

Peat color

The color is given by the organic substance present in it. The blonde, for example, owes its yellowish shades to the sphagnum moss. This means, therefore, that a sphagnum peat young will be darker with time.

The more young, the more peat will be less decomposed, that is, less acidic. The black one is therefore more decomposed, since it is extracted from deeper layers of the peat.

Blonde peat moss

The blonde is the most acidic, since it is more rich in organic material (up to 97% compared with 90% of the peat of the dark); then it is the best for the preparation of potting soils. But it is also the one with the least amount of ash, therefore less suitable to be used as fuel.

Peat moss sphagnum

The blonde sphagnum, then, is pure, from the very low pH (between 3 and 3.5). Almost devoid of nitrogen and mineral salts, and is suitable for the growth of carnivorous plants.

Peat in the aquarium

Soft, rich in organic substances, the black becomes more porous in the winter, and it is one that is used for aquariums because it is capable of feeding the water with humic acids and trace elements.

For the amount normally used in aquariums, does not change significantly the chemistry of the water, nor is it beneficial to lower the pH. What release is beneficial for certain types of fish, benefits which are reduced in hard water, where should be combined with other softeners of water, such as phosphoric acid.

Often used also only to mimic the color of the natural habitat of the fish by ‘black water’, must not be fertilised, (since it tends to release toxic compounds), or of sphagnum moss, because if immersed for too long, it will tend to rot.

Peat where to buy

You can find in the shops of gardening in nurseries and on the internet. The one for the aquarium, also in pet shops.

Peat price

The cost varies depending on the amount and type. Bales of 250 l of blonde sphagnum can cost you about 40 euro, while with diskettes and vessels does not exceed 20.

The similar prices that aquarium pellets. But in trade, you can also find in the form of granules, compressedformed of fibrous, raw and in liquid products such as extract.

Prices are lowered if you prefer to buy the potting mix (composed of varying percentages of peat) or peat organic pure.

Sphagnum grows?

Thanks to its ability to absorb water like a sponge, sphagnum is able to grow and develop for several square kilometres, giving rise to peat bogs such sfagneti or the peat bogs of peat moss, characterized by acidic water and devoid of minerals. Different sfagneti are also found in Tuscany.

The sphagnum moss will end up?

It is a living organism. So that it may develop, giving rise to the sfagneti, must occur in certain physicochemical conditions in the surrounding environment, including the constant presence of water.

Why bogs are important

Peatlands help to regulate the climate by removing from the atmosphere the carbon dioxide and storing, in exchange for carbon.

Because the peat bogs are diminishing

Through the extraction and the remediation of acts to make room for the new fields, the peat bogs are diminishing in number and scope.

In Italy, disappeared in the peat bogs of the Park of Lura, and they are retiring those of the Sebino, both in Lombardy.

From the peat bogs, you can get renewable energy?

Being the coal ‘younger’, the peat bogs are not a renewable energy source. It is in fact less sustainable fossil carbon, as by burning, produces less energy, but more carbon dioxide.

As the bogs preserve the bodies

This ecosystem is characterized by the almost total absence of oxygen, which is responsible for degradation of the tissues.

It is therefore in places such as bogs that were found in the ‘bog’, or corpses, even human, that have kept the skin and internal organs. The peat in ‘eat’ instead of the bones, which is calcium carbonate.

Peat Ganna

The Lake Ganna is a river basin of the municipality of Valganna, the province of Varese. Part of the protected area Campo dei Fiori regional Park, which also includes the Marsh Pralugano and two bogs, the Pau Majur in the area of Brinzio, and the Peat-bogs of the Carecc.

Both of the wetlands, even though they have been affected over the centuries by different land reclamation works are the natural habitat of many species of fauna and flora, some of which are extremely rare in Italy.

Peat diy

To replace the peat in the aquarium, use a bunch of dead leaves or pine cones on the ontanorthat lower the pH and the quantity of the heavy metals they release humic acids and have antibacterial and antifungal properties.

As a means for the deposition and storage of eggs of ovoviviparity, you can instead use the coconut fiber.

An excellent alternative for the soil is compost, which makes the soil even more lightweight and draining. It is also nutritious, yet require more frequent irrigations (but less abundant).

Another substrate that is sustainable, that more favours the growth and the radicatura and flowering of potted plants, is the fiber of the wood.

In Trentino, at the flower beds, the public, is used instead of the coconut fibre. Lightweight and with a high capacity of water retention, is more biodegradable, and does not cause suffocation of the roots.

The briquettes of peat sustainable?

The carbon present is of vital importance for several species of animals and plants. In Switzerland, the swamps are protected areas since the Eighties, yet every year, there are still extracted 150 thousand tons of peat.

The pellets of peat are organic?

The pellets are often generated from organic waste (wood, shells and other agricultural waste). But, unless there is written explicitly, are not organic. Swamps and peat bogs, in fact, are often located in industrial areas.

The peat pots are good?

The peat pots are containers 100% biocompatible. Make it easier for planting without causing trauma to the roots, and allow an optimal development of plants and vegetables.

Can be useful especially as seedbeds, as they lighten the soil and make it more porous.